Unprovoked Seizures in Autistic Individuals

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Autism One 2009 Conference Chicago, IL. May, 2009 Unprovoked Seizures in Autistic Individuals
Tapan Audhya, PhD New York University, NY & Vitamin Diagnostics, NJ
Seizure (Sudden, Abnormal electrical activity in brain)
Partial seizure (Focal, sensory or petit mal) (one part of brain; particularly the site which directs “flight” response; conscious; either tonic or clonic)
Generalized seizure (Both site of brain) Unconscious; Both tonic and clonic
Simple (No loss of consciousness) Epilepsy – a recurrent seizure
Non-epileptic Seizure – Similar to epileptic. Seizure but not caused by electrical disruption of cerebral cortex. Classified as 1) physiologic or 2) psychogenic
Nutritional Status of Autistic Children with Seizure
Age Group 4 -16 years ; N = 89 (Boys - 66, Girls – 23) Repetitive Epileptic Seizure 1-7.2 min (mean – 4.0 min) 3 - 4 times a day ICD-9 → 345.4;345.9;343.4;299.0 Epileptic Seizure was confirmed by EEG on 29 boys and 5 girls 17 children had spinal tap for unrelated reason
Vitamins & Minerals
Vitamin B1 in Plasma 32 low, 57 normal Biotin in Plasma 23 low, 43 normal These children were also hypoglycemic Vitamin B6 in Plasma 30 low, 40 high, 44 low in P-5-P Folic Acid in Plasma Low only in those children who take anticonvulsant medication. 11 children had problem with impaired transport of folate across the BBB. 8/14 low in CSF Vitamin D in Plasma 27 low in D3; (all of them had anticonvulsant medication) Minerals Magnesium 39 low in plasma 19 low in RBC 10 low in WBC 10/17 low in CSF Manganese 32 low in plasma & RBC Selenium 8/17 low in CSF 20 low in Plasma
Vitamin E in Plasma 45 low, 2 high, 42 normal
Calcium 10/17 high in CSF 16 low in Plasma 5 high in RBC
Protein & Amino Acids
199 amino acid, Hypothalamic peptide & controlled by Dopamine 21 boys and 3 girls had high plasma prolactin (2 -3x the normal levels) 11 boys & 3 girls had low Dopamine 14/17 high glutamate in CSF, 42 high in Plasma
14 high in Plasma & CSF
Glutamate Aspertate Taurine GABA
10/17 low in CSF, 34 low in Plasma
13/17 low in CSF, 28 high in Plasma, 59 low in Plasma
Synthesis of GABA and α-
Glutamine → Glutamate
GABA α-Ketoglutarate
Glutathione Peroxidase
26 low normal 34 less than half the normal value
Free Radical Oxygen
Glutathione Peroxidase (GP)
H20 + 02
Autism, Seizure & Neurotransmitters (NT)
NTs are chemicals that transfer information from one neuron to another NTs have two basic functions • Inform receiving neuron to “Fire” • Inform receiving neuron to stop “Firing” Excitatory Inhibitory
These actions of NTs depend on a class of proteins which is known as receptors. These receptors initiate the activity after receiving the NTs. GABA, for example, binds to receptors which are inhibitory. Most anti anxiety medications increase GABA transmission More GABA receptor activation Shut down the CNS Relaxation
GABA Receptor
GABAergic system in cerebellum and limbic structure in affected in autism. Inhibition of this system is suppressed by 2. Impairment of GABA-receptor 3. Antagonism of GABAergic neurons bearing receptors sensitive to glutamate analog NMDA.
Example: Pathology relating to GABA receptors and suspected etiologies of autism Excessive glutamate activation of non-NMDA glutamate receptor – Pathology observed in Autism
GABA Receptor submit Genes in Autism
GABA-receptor Subunit Gene
GABRG1 -A2 -A4 -B1
-B2 -A6 -A1 -G2 -P
6q15 15q12
-R1 -R2 -A5 -B3 -G3
Only GABR A4 is involved in the etiology of autism and gene – gene interaction between GABR A4 and GABR B1
GABAA Receptor
Controlling Seizures by Nutritional Approach
Ketogenic Diet : A diet high in fats, low in protein and carbohydrate.
Fat: (carb + protein) = 4:1 However, never make too low carb (Hypoglycemia) Medium chain Triglycerides (MCT) are more ketogenic.
Taurine 500 mg/day; divided in 3 batches Folic Acid 400 mcg/day Vit B6 20 mg/kg Body wt. Mn 5 mg/day DMG 100 mg/day L-Carnitine 100 mg/day L-carnosine 250 mg/2 x day
Vit – B1 20 mg/day Vit – B12 200 mcg/day Mg 400 mg/day Zn 20 mg/day Se 100 mcg/day Vit. E (natural) 100 mg/day

Shock treatments for kids is

Shock treatments for kids is completely ridiculous. I am in support of proper discipline of children, but being able to shock them is going too far. The Judge Rotenberg Center uses these kinds of techniques to deal with children within the center. They justify it by saying it is better than the kid causing harm to themselves or others. That is like comparing Apples and Oranges. This is like saying rape is preferable to murder. These two things cannot be treated similarly. They're not the same and therefore should not be treated like they are.